Samuel, Machine Learning can be defined
as the “ computers that has ability to learn
without being explicitly programmed”.
It means that,
machine learning is a branch of computer science which enables computer systems
to learn and respond to queries on the basis of experience and knowledge rather
than from predefined programs.
can be used to study data, construct algorithms for it and can further make
predictions on the data.
Machine learning can be
classified into three categories,
depending upon the nature of learning. These are:
When learning of
a function can be done from its inputs and outputs, it is called as supervised
One of the
example of supervised learning is “Classification”.
It classifies the
data on the basis of training set available and uses that data for classifying
The class labels on the
training data is known in advance which
further helps in data classification.
Issues in Supervised
Cleaning: In data cleaning, noise and
missing values are handled.
Selection: Abundant an irrelevant
attributes are removed while feature selection is done.
Data Transformation: Data
normalization and data generalization is included in data
When learning can
be used to draw inference from some data set containing input data, it is called
as unsupervised learning.
It clusters the
data on the basis of similarities according to the characteristics found in the
data and grouping similar objects into clusters.
The class labels
on the training data is not known in advance i.e. no predefined
The problem of
unsupervised learning involves learning patterns from the inputs when specific
output values are supplied.
is an example of unsupervised
learning which can further be used on the basis of different methods as per
Reinforcement in general is,
the action or process of
establishing a pattern of behavior.
Reinforcement learning is the ability of software agents to learn and get
reinforced by acting in environment i.e. learning from
learning, the software agents acts upon the environment and gets rewarded for
its action after evaluation but is not told, of which action was correct and
helped it to achieve the goal.